Have you ever argued with your loved ones over simple misunderstandings(误解)?Little wonder.We often believe we’re more skillful in getting our point across than we actually are,according to Boza Keysar,a professor at the University of Chicago.In his recent study,speakers tried to express their meanings using unclear sentences.Speakers who thought listeners understood were wrong nearly half the time.Here’s some good advice to reduce misunderstanding:
(1)Don’t trust what you see from the listener.Listeners often nod,look at you or say“uhhuh”to be polite or move the conversation along.But it’s easy to consider these as signs of understanding.
(2)Train the editor(编辑)in your head.If you say,“Beth discusses her problems with her husband,”it’s not clear whether she’s talking to her husband or about him.Try instead,“Beth talks to her husband about her problems.”or“Beth talks to others about the problems with her husband.”
(3)Ask listeners to repeat your message.Introduce your request by saying“I want to be sure I said that right.”Questions like“How does that sound?”or“Does that make sense?”may also work.
(4)Listen well.When on the receiving end,ask questions to be sure you’re on the same page.After all,it isn’t just the speaker’s job to make his speech understood.
44.Why does the writer give us the advice?
A.We’re not skillful enough to make clear sentences.
B.Misunderstanding is damaging our normal lives.
C.Misunderstanding occurs now and then.
D.It’s impolite to say NO to others.
45.The writer suggests that when talking to others,the speaker should.
A.know that listeners will show him that they understand his words
B.express himself clearly even when he sees signs of understanding
C.notice listener’s signs of understanding
D.look directly into his listener’s eyes
46.By training the editor in your head,the speakers are advised.
A.to get themselves trained by a good editor
B.to discuss problems with their husbands or wives
C.to express themselves in long but simple sentences
D.to make sure each sentence has only one meaning
47.In the last paragraph,the words“you’re on the same page”mean that.
A.you’re following the speaker closely
B.you’re reading the same page as the speaker does
C.you should know which page the speaker refers to
D.your story is written on the same page as the speaker’s
A句意理解题。由此句后面一句“make his speech understood”可知，“you’re on the same page”意为“你能跟得上说话者的思路，能理解说话者的意思”。
The first European stock exchange was established in Antwerp,Belgium(比利时),in 1531.There were no stock exchanges in England until the 1700’s.A man wishing to buy or sell shares of stock had to find a broker(agents)to transact his business for him.In London,he usually went to a coffee house,because brokers often gathered there.In 1773,the brokers of London formed a stock exchange.
In New York City,brokers met under an old button wood tree on Wall Street.They organized the New York Stock Exchange in 1792.The American Stock Exchange,the second largest in the United States,was formerly called the Curb Exchange because of its origin on the streets of New York City.
A stock exchange is a market place where member brokers buy and sell stocks and bonds(债券)of American and foreign businesses on behalf of the public.A stock exchange provides a market place for stocks and bonds in the same way a board of trade does for commodities.The stockbrokers receive a small commission on each transaction they make.
The stockholder may sell his stock wherever he wants to unless the corporation has some special rule to prevent it.Prices of stock change according to general business conditions and the earnings and future prospects(前景)of the company.If the business is doing well,the stockholder may be able to sell his stock for a profit.If it is not,he may have to take a loss.
48.In the 1600’s,if a man wanted to buy or sell shares of stock in England,he had to do it through.
D.the stock exchange
49.The second largest stock exchange in the U.S.used to be called.
A.the Wall Street Exchange
B.the New York Stock Exchange
C.the Curb Exchange
50.Which of the statements is true?
A.The stockholder can sell his stock to anywhere at any time.
B.There were no stock exchange in England in the 1700’s.
C.The price of stock is not stable.
D.The stockbrokers do the transaction without charging for the stockholders.
51.The passage is mainly about.
A.the Wall Street
B.the stock exchange
D.the stockholder and stockbroker
It is customary for adults to forget how hard and dull and long school is.The learning by memory of all the basic things one must know is a most incredible and unending effort.Learning to read is probably the most difficult and revolutionary thing that happens to the human brain and if you don’t believe that,watch an illiterate adult try to do it.School is not easy and it is not for the most part very much fun,but then,if you are very lucky,you may find a real teacher.Three real teachers in a lifetime is the very best of my luck.My first was a science and math teacher in high school,my second,a professor of creative writing at Stanford,and my third was my friend and partner,Ed Ricketts.
My three had these things in common:They all loved what they were doing.They did not tell;they catalyzed a burning desire to know.Under their influence,the horizons sprung wide and fear went away and the unknown became knowable.But most important of all,the truth,that dangerous stuff,became beautiful and very precious.
I shall speak only of my first teacher because in addition to the other things,she brought discovery.
She aroused us to shouting,book waving discussions.She had the noisiest class in school and she didn’t even seem to know it.We could never stick to the subject.Our speculation ranged the world.She breathed curiosity into us so that we brought in facts or truths shielded in our hands like captured fireflies.
I can tell my son who looks forward with horror to fifteen years of drudgery that somewhere in the dusty dark a magic may happen that will light up the years if he is very lucky.
52.According to the author,what is the most difficult thing to people in school?
B事实细节题。从文章第一段第三句“Learning to read is probably the most difficult and revolutionary thing…”可知,读是最难的。B项为正确答案。
53.The very best of the author is that he.
A.met a good teacher
B.he graduated from Stanford
C.made friends with his teachers
D.met some good teachers in his life
D事实细节题。从文章第一段第五句“Three real teachers in a lifetime is the very best of my luck.”可知，最大的幸运是一生中遇到几位好老师(met some good teachers in his life)。D项为正确答案。
54.Among his teachers,left him a very deep impression.
A.the university teacher
B.the high school teacher
D.the first two teachers
B推理判断题。从文章第三段开头“I shall speak only of my first teacher because in addition to the other things,she brought discovery.”可以推出，“my first teacher”(高中教科学和数学的老师)给作者留下了很深的印象。B项为正确答案。
55.The author hoped that his son.
A.may be lucky to meet a good teacher
B.may study in school for fifteen years
C.can read many books
D.may study science and math
A推理判断题。从文章最后一段“…somewhere in the dusty dark a magic may happen that will light up the years…”可以推断，作者希望儿子在15年的上学苦役中可以幸运地遇到好老师(may be lucky to meet a good teacher)。A项为正确答案。